Sonnenregen WoO VII/29
for voice and piano
Text: Anna Ritter
|Reger-Werkausgabe||Bd. II/2: Lieder II, S. 83–84.|
|Herausgeber||Stefan König, Dennis Ried.
Unter Mitarbeit von Alexander Becker, Nikolaos Beer und Christopher Grafschmidt.
|Verlag||Carus-Verlag, Stuttgart; Verlags- und Plattennummer: CV 52.809.|
|Copyright||2021 by Carus-Verlag, Stuttgart and Max-Reger-Institut, Karlsruhe – CV 52.809.
Vervielfältigungen jeglicher Art sind gesetzlich verboten. / Any unauthorized reproduction is prohibited by law.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten. / All rights reserved.
1. Composition and Publication
From mid-1900 Reger increasingly published shorter organ and piano pieces as well as songs in music and arts periodicals, in order to disseminate his works more widely and to gain a new audience1. After he had placed a single song (In verschwiegener Nacht WoO VII/20) in Redende Künste in June 1899, a first contribution for the Neue Musik-Zeitung, Nachtgeflüster WoO VII/23 appeared at the beginning of July 1900; this was dedicated to that periodical. Reviews of Reger’s works had appeared in the Neue Musik-Zeitung since 1899, but there is no record of when and how he came into contact with it, which was published by Stuttgart publisher Carl Grüninger. The date of composition of Nachtgeflüster, the first setting of a poem by Franz Evers, followed by twelve others, is not known. Reger had the text of the song from the belles lettres anthology Sonnenblumen by August 1899 at the latest.2
On 6 July 1900, a day after the publication of Nachtgeflüster, Reger sent a new selection of musical scores to the periodical, and explained in his covering letter: “Enclosed you will find 4 piano pieces & 5 songs. You will find that in the same, I have made only very modest & the most minor demands of the singer and pianist; therefore technically, the pieces will certainly not be too difficult for your readers. […] For the song Brautring 2 printed pages, all the other 4 songs 1 printed page each. With the greatest pleasure I will also send you more songs & piano pieces later on – until everything has been published as inserts, I have long since sent you another instalment of such pieces & songs. […].” (Letter)3 Although the engraver’s copies do not survive, from Reger’s comments on the estimated number of printed pages, we can conclude that he also submitted Brautring WoO VII/25, because he thought that each of the songs Süße Ruh WoO VII/24, Geheimnis WoO VII/26, Mädchenlied WoO VII/27, and Hoffnungslos WoO VII/28 would fit on one page. The song Sonnenregen WoO VII/29, two pages in print, could have been composed at a later date and submitted afterwards, at least its date of publication was considerably after the five other songs: the latter were published in rough succession and alternating with the first two of what was ultimately ten piano pieces4 between September 1900 and March 1901 5, Sonnenregen on the other hand only in July 1902. In November 1900 the Neue Musik-Zeitung also published a detailed article on Reger’s life and work by his friend and organist Karl Straube 6. In August 1902 Reger’s music inserts appeared there for the last time with the songs Sehnsucht and Kindergeschichte which were incorporated into the collection Twelve Songs op. 66 7 shortly afterwards.
As text sources for his songs WoO VII/23–29 Reger chose exclusively contemporary poems: he found Süße Ruh (Frieda Laubsch) and Hoffnungslos (Willibald Obst) in the “Texte für Liederkomponisten” column, which the Neue Musik-Zeitung itself published. He probably also found the Mädchenlied by Marie Madeleine (Freifrau von Puttkamer) in a periodical.8 Brautring, Geheimnis, and Sonnenregen by Anna Ritter also came from the 1900 volume of poetry Befreiung, in which Reger had placed great hopes. However, he now felt “very disappointed” by this.9
In June 1910 the Leipzig music publisher Paul Zschocher approached Reger with the idea of newly publishing some songs and piano pieces which had previously been issued as music inserts in anthologies. Reger himself took on the task of checking through everything and calculated “a fee of 50 M for [his] trouble”.10 The copyright agreement signed by the composer on 29 June lists alongside the “10 Klavierstücke[n]” from the Neue Musik-Zeitung, which were combined with two further pieces and now issued as Blätter und Blüten, and “Kleine Lieder: 8 Lieder”, which had been published before in the Neue Musik-Zeitung and by the Taubald’sche Bookshop in Weiden.11 These were the songs WoO VII/23 to 29 and the Wiegenlied WoO VII/19 published in 1899 in Weiden. The latter, however, was not included in the anthology and was published in 1910 as a new publication by Bote & Bock. Instead, Um Mitternacht blühen die Blumen and Volkslied op. 79c nos. 2 and 3 and the Schlummerlied WoO VII/33 were included in the collection. These were given the title Liebeslieder. To what extent Reger was involved in the final compilation and the choice of title is not known. Reger’s revision of the songs WoO VII/23–29 essentially comprised the correction of mistakes (the addition of missing accidentals and ties, deletion of a parallel octave, etc.). The Liebeslieder were published in November 1910 with German and English text both in the original key and in an edition for low voice.12 At the end of 1928 Breitkopf & Härtel took over Zschocher’s stock of Reger editions13, also including the Liebeslieder. Later editions, however, did not include the two songs from op. 79c, as the original publisher Hermann Beyer & Söhne refused to allow them to be reprinted as part of the collection.Note: See Letter from Breitkopf & Härtel to Elsa Reger dated 11 April 1929.
Translation by Elizabeth Robinson.
1. Early reception
As long as Reger still lived in Weiden, he could only call on performers from his close circle to disseminate his songs. For example, Maria Hösl sang the song Traum durch die Dämmerung op. 35 no. 3 in November 1899 in Heidelberg from a manuscript before it was printed. Josef Loritz performed songs including Glückes genug op. 37 no. 3 in December 1900 at a song recital he had organised at the “Bayerischer Hof” in Munich, and elsewhere. Also in 1900, the first reviews of the songs up to op. 43 appeared, which were largely positive. For the critic of the Musikalisches Wochenblatt, Eugen Segnitz, Reger was already “a predestined lieder singer”, who had “the whole gamut of lyrical expressive capabilities” at his disposal. He characterised the song "Frauenhaar" op. 37 no. 4 in the words: “A powerful blaze of passion, an ecstasy of happiness enjoyed, which, constantly resonating in gentle vibrations, never wants to end”. (Review) As preceding citation. The special features of the vocal part were also discussed, which was repeatedly described as “strange”, especially as “even the most distant echoes of familiar melodic expressions” were avoided. (Review from anon. in Neue Musik-Zeitung) The piano part was often seen as an “effective counterpart to the voice” (Ibid.) because of its striking independence, and criticism of its complexity and its recurring structural patterns, which were perceived as monochrome , was also sparked.1
Reger laid the basis for a more lasting reception of his songs after his move to Munich in September 1901. Just a month later he appeared as piano accompanist to Loritz in a song recital in the Museum Room of the Palais Portia. At this, three numbers from his opp. 51 and 55 as well as songs by Anton Beer-Walbrunn and Ludwig Thuille, both professors at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst, were performed. Numerous other concert performances in the Museum and in the “Bayerischer Hof” Hotel followed. In these, in strategic fashion, he always “confronted” 2 songs by composers of the so-called Munich School (Thuille, Max Schillings, Ernst Boehe etc.), characterized by their restrained modernism, with a small selection of his own new works. In this way he “invited a comparison with his own songs”, particularly since in his choice, he always took care to select “one of the extremely wild, naturalistic” songs, “but also tender mood paintings”.3 At this time Reger acquired the reputation of an excellent, sensitive piano accompanist. As well as Loritz, from 1902 he also worked with singers including the tenors Ludwig Hess and Franz Bergen, and a little later the alto Iduna Walter-Choinanus and soprano Susanne Dessoir. Comparing his songs with contributions by contemporaries, the Munich critics repeatedly emphasized the atypical and contrary generic character of Reger’s works, sometimes relating this to the composer’s personality. Thus a reviewer writing in the Munich Illustriertes Salonblatt found the provocative-confessional setting of Jacobowski’s Der Narr op. 55 no. 5 to be a “clearly revealed construct of the unique nature of this volcanic genius”. (Review of the concert on 7 April 1902 in the “Bayerischer Hof”) Reger had understood the poem to be a general charge against philistines ignorant of art, and included it in his core repertoire as a song accompanist. Referring to the songs Schmied Schmerz and Frühlingsmorgen op. 51 nos. 6 and 11, the critic of the Allgemeinen Zeitung München (probably Theodor Kroyer) spoke of “incredible strange creations” and pointedly summarised: “For the “song rabble” they are of course nothing.” (Review of the concert on 4 January 1902 in the Palais Portia)
From about 1902 onwards the songs Reger had composed in Weiden increasingly featured in detailed collective reviews in music journals. In the Allgemeinen Musik-Zeitung Heinrich Lang noted a development between opp. 51 and 55 towards a less overladen musical language and demonstratively contrasted the complex structures of the first collection (“so much counterpoint, so much harmonic and rhythmic ‘secession’ and such an absurdly difficult piano accompaniment simply does not go with the concept of ‘song’”) with the melodically approachable Viola d’amour op. 55 no. 11 as an ideal (“that is the most deeply-felt language of the soul, that is music, in the words of the most sacred meaning!” (Review). In his article published in Die Gesellschaft, Karl Straube, Reger’s friend and main performer of his organ works, also interpreted the op. 51 songs as the artistic result of “Reger’s difficult German nature” and described the “sensory and supersensory nature of these songs, which find their artistic expression in the harmonic exuberance, now almost stammering, now overflowing and sentimental in the declamation of the melodic lines in wide-ranging melismas”, whereas in op. 55, he now recognized “a healthy naturalness of feeling in contrast with the hyper-symbolism of the earlier songs”. (Ibid.)
How much Reger’s song output polarised the musical public is revealed in the paper “Max Reger als Liederkomponist” by Richard Batka, the music editor of Der Kunstwart, in the periodical Deutsche Gesangskunst. The implicit accusation in some earlier reviews of an artifically forced, mathematically calculated atmosphere is openly voiced in this article, referring to opp. 51 and 55. On Wiegenlied op. 51 no. 3 Batka commented sarcastically: “Is it not dreadful? Will the poor child not be seasick with this ‘quasi vivacissimo’ triplet rhythm, will it not be frightened by these harmonic grimaces, or driven mad by the pained singing of its mother?” As well as this, he declared the vocal part of the song to be the “result of arithmetic”, the “voice by the grace of the piano” and reckoned that “if this kind of composing were to become so fashionable that singers believed they had to go along with it, it would ruin our far-from-ideal state of singing completely.” Batka’s harsh invective attracted the attention of the Munich poet and music writer Richard Braungart, who was known to Reger and was the poet of the song Ein Paar op. 55 no. 9. Braungart criticized Batka’s lack of willingness and ability to countenance new sounds4 and argued in favor of Reger, ultimately with reference to the difference between melodic song and the genre of declamatory song which was influential for Reger: “But with declamatory song, the voice never appears on its own, but always gains life and expressive power in the most intimate connection with the accompaniment (inadequate word!). Thus Reger, like other modern composers, cannot be criticized for this fact; because for them it is the (one could almost say: homophonic) polyphony of the human voice and of the piano part which gives the whole song the full melody, and it is in the inseparable combination of these two factors that the tremendous expressive power of such music lies.” (Ibid.)
After Reger had given concerts with Josef Loritz several times further afield since 1901 (including in Nördlingen, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Krefeld), in February/March 1903 he ventured to organize two purely Reger song recitals with Ludwig Hess in Leipzig (“Hôtel de Prusse”) and Berlin (Beethoven-Saal), followed later by a Reger- Wolf evening with Franz Bergen in Leipzig. The program of the two identical Reger evenings contained a total of 16 songs from opp. 37 to 55 composed in Weiden, as well as the collections opp. 62, 66, 68 and 70 , composed in Munich 5, which covered the entire spectrum of Reger’s song output – from melodic songs such as Glückes genug op. 37 no. 3 and Viola d’amour op. 55 no. 11 to expressive declamatory songs such as Schmied Schmerz op. 51 no. 6 and Wehe! op. 62 no. 1. The Berlin critics in particular regarded the songs as scandalous and an attack on good taste, used the cliché of musical “unnaturalness” 6 almost unanimously, and outbid each other with garish descriptions for the musically repulsive: thus the chronicler of the Staatsbürgerzeitung conjectured that “such shrieking […] such falsetto whimpering can give the listeners bad nerves” (Review from F. Hoyer), Max Marschalk (Vossische Zeitung) spoke of “a difficult affliction” (Review), and the organist and composer Heinrich Reimann, who had written a detailed appreciation of Reger’s first opus in 1893, diagnosed “stylistic violence and monstrosities in pseudo-polyphony” (Review in Das kleine Journal) The few balanced judgements amongst the great ranks of critics, who had to review George Frideric Handel’s oratorio Israel in Egypt in the Philharmonie the same evening, and therefore had to go “from Handel to Reger and from Reger back to Handel” in the interval, thereby travelling between different sound worlds7, included the account by Hugo Leichtentritt in the Allgemeinen Musik-Zeitung. Leichtentritt detected “on the one hand the most subtly refined harmony, on the other ruthlessly harsh and violent” and interpreted the avoidance of singable melody not as a deficiency, but as a conscious characteristic: “At any rate it was interesting and instructive for me to note that I did not find this neglect of melody in some songs to be entirely trivial, nor the artistic effect belittling.” (Review)8 In similar fashion, Ernst Günther had also detected a turning point in Reger’s vocal output in his review of the song opuses 35 to 62, beginning with the Eight Songs op. 43, in which “everything simple or folk song-like was stripped away”. On the occasion of Reger’s move to the musical center Munich he finally posed the question: “Will he become more malleable, more approachable, more urbane? I don’t believe so. May he just continue in the tone he struck in op. 55. We must rise to his level, he should not descend to ours”. (“Max Reger als Liedercomponist”, in Neue Zeitschrift für Musik)
Translation by Elizabeth Robinson.
Der Edition liegt als Leitquelle der von Reger für den Verlag Paul Zschocher revidierte Druck der Lieder (»Liebeslieder«) zugrunde. Als weitere Quellen wurden deren Erstdrucke als Zeitschriftenbeigaben herangezogen. Die transponierte Ausgabe der »Liebeslieder« für tiefe Stimme entstand vermutlich ohne Regers Beteiligung und war somit editorisch nicht relevant.
- Erstdrucke der Zeitschriftenbeigaben
- Erstdruck der revidierten Ausgabe (in: »Liebeslieder«)
Weiterlesen in der RWA
Max Reger: Sonnenregen WoO VII/29, in: Reger-Werkausgabe, www.reger-werkausgabe.de/mri_work_00255.html, last check: 3rd June 2023.
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